Eastern Route Project (ERP)

This project will divert water from the lower reach of Changjiang north to supply water for the eastern Huang-Huai-Hai Plain with the termination in Tianjin City by raising water in stages through Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal.

ERP was initially considered in the early 1950s. Since the heavy drought of North China in 1972, under the leadership of then Ministry of Water Resources and Electric Power, Planning Office of South-to-North Water Transfer has organized Huaihe Water Resources Commission, Haihe Water Resources Commission, Tianjin Hydroelectric Investigation and Design Institute, relative provinces and cities and agencies, to do a great number of investigation, design and research works for more than 20 years. In 1976, the "Planning Report on Project in Near Future for South-to-North Water Transfer" was submitted to the State Council for preliminary examination. In March 1983, the State Council approved the "Feasibility Study Report on First-stage Engineering of ERP for South-to-North Water Transfer" issued by Ministry of Water Resources and Electric Power. In September 1993, Ministry of Water Resources, jointly with some provinces and cities concerned, examined and adopted the "Revised punning Report on ERP for South-to-North Water Transfer" and "Revised Feasibi11ty Study Report on First -stage Engineering of ERP for South-to-North Water Transfer".


Sangjiang Ying Section of Changjiang River

Sketch Map of The Scheme of ERP.



Scale of ERP and water quantity to be diverted
There is the richer water in the lower reach of Changjiang River, with mean annual water of 956 million m3 entering sea, and more than 600 billion m3 even in extreme dry year. Therefore, ERP will have enough water to be pumped north, and the water quantity to be diverted is based on the scale of ERP.

The rational final engineering scale of ERP was considered in planning. The development level in 2020 was taken as the objective planning scale and the successfully diverting water into North China as the first-stage objective. The water quantities to be diverted in various stages are respectively 8.9 billion m3 , 10.6 billion m3 and 14.8 billion m3 .

ERP will supply water for Jiangsu, Anhui, shandong, Hebei Provinces and Tianjin Municipality. In details, the receiving areas will include, the plain on the lower Huaihe except the hinterland and its east of Lixiahe Region and the northern plateaus in Northern Jiangsu, the areas on both banks of lower Huaihe River from Bengbu City and on both banks of Xinbian River in the east of Huaibei City and parts of Tianchang County in Anhui Province; the areas along Nansi Lakes and Hanzhuang Canal and Liangji Canal, parts of eastern Jiaodong Peninsula, and northern area which can not be irrigated by the water of Huanghe in Shandong Province Hebei Province and Tianjin City and its suburbs.
Layout of ERP

ERP will be built on the basis of the existing water diversion project from Changjiang in Jiangsu Province, Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, Huaihe harnessing projects and the other relative projects. ERP will consist of water conveyance system, impounding project, power supply system.

1.Water conveyance system
Water conveyance system will include the main diversion channel, pumping station, Huanghe-crossing project and the relative treatment projects.

(1) Diversion channel

There will be two diversion spots, sanjiangying where Huaihe River enters Changjimg and Gaogang where Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal crosses Changjiang. The diversion channel will be 1156 km in total length from Changjiang to Tianjin trunk route, including 646 km section in the south of Huanghe, 17 km Huanghe-crossing section, 493 km section in the north of Huanghe. There will be 740 km in a total length of subsidiary routes including 665 km in the south of Huanghe. 90% of the diversion channel will be made for use of the existing river channels.

Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will be the trunk diversion channel. Some subsidiary diversion routes will be added to partial diversion channel sections.


The full view of Jiangdu pumpingstation

(2) Pumping station
The topography along Huanghe River is of the higher center. The diversion spot will be lower than the surface near Huanghe by 36 ~37 m. It is needed to construct 13 pumping stations to pump water from Changjiang to southern bank of Huanghe with the total lifting height of 65 m. The water crossing Huanghe can now by gravity to Tianjin. In the south of Huanghe, there will be a stage for Nansi Lakes section, and three stages for each of other sections. There will be 67 pumping stations with the total installed capacity of 678 MW. 16 existing pumping stations with the installed capacity of 149 MW will be used.

In the first-stage engineering of 13 stages, 51 pumping stations with the installed capacity of 529 MW will be built.

The characteristics of the pumping station of ERP will include low lifting height (2-6 m), large flow (15-40m3/s for each unit), long operating time (5000 hours/year for the stations in the south of Huanghe). Some pumping stations responsible for waterlogging drainage wil1have to be of operating mobility and high efficiency.

(3) Huanghe-crossing project

The alternative of tunnelling under Huanghe between Dongping County and Dong'e County of Shandong Province was selected. On the basis of long-term geological investigation and the Huanghe-crossing exploratory tunnel excavation, the relative units have found out the foundation structure and the karst development in the river bed under Huanghe, and solved successfully the problem of leekage control for excavation under the riverbed.

Huanghe-crossing section is 7.87 km in total length from the outlet of Dongping Lake to the outlet gate of the north bank of the Yellow River, including siphon section of 585.38 m. The two horizontal tunnels with the diameter of 9.3 m will be located 70 m under the riverbed of Huanghe. For the first stage engineering, one of the two tunnels will be driven.

2. Impounding projects
The impounding projects are the necessary measures of long-distance water transfer. Along ERP in the south of Huanghe, there are some lakes such as Hongze Lake, Luoma Lake, Nansi Lakes, Dongping Lake, that can be as the impounding projects for ERP with the total regulating storage capacity of 4.89 billion m3 by repairing slightly. No new impounding project will be needed. In the north of Huanghe, Beidagang Reservoir in Tianjin City can be continuously used, and Tuanbowa in Tianjin City and Qianqingwa in Hebei Province will be extended for use, and Dalangdian and Langwa in Hebei Province will be newly built. So there will be 5 impounding projects with the total storage capacity of 1.49 billion m3 in the north of Huanghe.
3. Investment

In accordance with the price level in 2000, the total investment for ERP equals to about 65 billion yuan. For the first stage engineering, some 32 billion yuan will be required.

Benefits of Project

ERP will increase supply Jiangsu, Anhui, Shandong, Hebei and Tianjin with 14.8 billion m3 water.

The ERP completed will basically solve the problems in shortage of water resources in Tianjin Municipality, Heilonggang and Yundong regions in Hebei Province, north and southwest and part of Jiaodong Peninsula of Shandong Province, and make the supplying water for Tianjin available, consequently prompting economic development of Bohai Sea area and eastern Hulang-Huai-Hai Plain, and improving the environment deteriorated from the shortage of water.

ERP will ensure the annual navigation from Jining to xuzhou on Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, and make two commodity grain bases in Western Shandong and Northern Jiangsu strong and developed.


Tianjin

The South-to-North Water Transfers is an important strategic measure in the optimization of water resources distribution of China. As the specific geographic location and the limited water quantity of the water providing area, each of the West Route, the Middle Route and East Route has its own rational scope of irreplaceable water supply area, according to the requirement of relative regional economic development, the preparation of pre-construction and the ability of the state finace and other conditions. The South-to-North Water Transfers Project has been carried out in Dec . 27, 2002 .


Beijing
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Zhong Canal
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